Certain review panels are so influential that their balanced composition becomes a sensitive semi-political issue. They are then susceptible to lobbying, factional conflict and other typical organizational pathologies. Political gameplaying, conflicts of interest and excessive secrecy are some of the outcomes which cloud the credibility of this type of peer review.
2. Peer review procedures are no safeguard against deliberate deception and are not efficacious in detecting fraud or piracy in research systems. Its most significant limitation is that it has no political leverage. It can neither bear excessive pressure from business or sponsors, nor direct executive responsibility. If given too much power within its parent body, it is susceptible to lobbying, factional conflict and other typical organizational pathologies.