A fallacy is a statement or argument that leads one to a false conclusion because of a misconception of the meaning of the words used or a flaw in the reasoning involved.
While there is no general agreement on the various types of fallacies, one useful outline of types is as follows: I. Fallacies in diction: A. Equivocation, one word mistaken for another; B. Amphibology, double meaning sentence; C. Composition, attributing to the whole what is true only for the part; D. Division, attributing to the part what is true only for the whole; E. Metaphor, taking a figure of speech literally or stretching it unduly; F. Accent, different stress, tone, or gesture giving a different meaning to a word. II. Fallacies extra diction: A. Accident, presenting as true in the definite particular what is only generally true; B. False absolute, assuming as always true what is true only in its proper field of circumstance; C. Pretended cause, a prior event is cited as cause of a subsequent one; D. Evading the issue, of which there are many types; E. Begging the question, more than evading the issue but actually negation or contradiction of the issue; and The complex question, a "loaded" query that cannot be answered by a simple yes or no, [ie] "Have you stopped taking graft ?".