Failure of integrated pest management

Failure of IPM in developing countries
Non-transferability of IPM to small scale farming
While integrated pest management (IPM) has worked in developed countries, it has not produced the same results in developing countries. The reasons for its failure in developing countries include problems with extension methods, lack of farmer co-operation, funding, government direction and even conspiracies involving the pesticide industry. In this respect IPM is a product of agricultural industrialization, successful in context of large-scale industrial farming but unsuitable for resource-poor farmers operating on a relatively small scale.
Since its inception in the 1960s, integrated pest management (IPM) has become the dominant paradigm in crop protection. Its ecological approach - involving a minimum use of pesticides - has accounted for much of its popularity. Its use has been widely adopted by development agencies.
(J) Problems under consideration