Failure of external development

Increased dependency through development
Reduced community capability following reform
The people of rural communities - the educated, the farmers and the others - live together, forming part of the development of two million rural villages and hamlets. However, social and economic development have not yet touched these communities in any significant way; some changes appear to hinder development rather than help it, and plans for others have simply not materialized. For example, land reform may have distributed the land on an equitable basis in some countries, but in many cases it has also limited the use to which land is put; river basins which have been designated for reclamation remain without irrigation; resources and trained personnel leave villages without a corresponding return in services or training. As a result, communities are increasingly dependent on outside programmes and agencies which seem remote and unresponsive.
(F) Fuzzy exceptional problems