Excessive replacement surgery

Unnecessary elective surgery
Overuse of expensive transplant surgery
The first transplant surgery (kidney and bone-marrow) was performed in the 1950s. With the development of immunosuppressant drugs, tens of thousands of such operations are performed each year in the USA alone. Hip replacement operations in the USA have rose by 50% in the period between 1980 and 1989.
(E) Emanations of other problems