Excessive exposure to radiation from consumer goods and electronic devices

Many millions of units of various types of consumer products containing deliberately incorporated radionuclides are in everyday use around the world. These include: radioluminous products; electronic and electrical devices; antistatic devices; gas and aerosol (smoke) detectors; ceramic, glassware, alloys, etc, containing uranium or thorium; and other devices including scientific instruments. Estimates of doses in individuals resulting from the use of such products show that in all cases these doses are small. The highest calculated whole-body doses result from the wearing of radioluminous watches, which are the most widespread radioactive consumer product. Other sources of radiation are more or less widespread throughout the population and include alarm clocks, television sets, and the continually increasing number of applications of radioactive substances (as found in fluorescent lamps and electronic components of various devices). Singly, they produce only small gonadal doses, but their total contribution may eventually constitute a danger.
(E) Emanations of other problems