Erosion of coastal biological resources

Coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs and associated fish life, have been degraded by the combined effects of agricultural run-off and siltation, urban sewage, industrial pollution and, in some countries, by tourism.

Coastal biological resources have been depleted by commercial fishing, including poison and blast fishing.

Pollution from shipping, in particular oil, and in some areas, the discharge of toxic wastes, have adversely affected the coastal marine environment.

Land reclamation and other coastal developments have also been responsible for the destruction of wildlife habitat and some fine natural coastlines.

(F) Fuzzy exceptional problems