If oil or gas is discovered, the extraction phase begins. Fossil fuel extraction leads to the construction of additional roads and infrastructure, often in pristine areas. The roads and infrastructure allow loggers, ranchers and displaced peoples to access previously impenetrable forest or wilderness areas, leading to further destruction. The extraction process also frequently results in leaks and seepage that cause massive environmental pollution and health problems for local communities.
Fossil fuel transportation requires massive pipeline and infrastructure projects that pollute local ecosystems and open up additional territory to destructive development. The fossil fuels are shipped on tankers around the world, sometimes resulting in oil spills and other accidents which devastate marine ecosystems.