Restrictive business practices tend to interfere with the efficient use of economic resources and thus reduce economic growth and welfare, with particularly adverse effects on developing countries. Such practices include: cartel activities; export prohibitions; agreements on market distribution and allocation; tying of the supply of inputs including raw materials and components; restrictions specified in contracts for the transfer of technology; arbitrary transfer pricing between the parent company and its affiliates; monopoly practices.
2. Both the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank impose upon developing countries draconian measures designed to promote economic growth and stability, most often at the price of extreme human suffering and environmental damage. Such measures fly in the face of the best learnings of the developed world about the need to manage economic development carefully if the populace and the environment are to benefit in the long run.