In a significant number of cases, more than one INGO may be concerned with the same subject or problem area, or may have membership links with the same range or organizations, or may solicit funds from the same range of bodies. Such duplication may be accompanied by a total lack of coordination between the INGOs in question. This situation may be considered a waste of resources calling for rationalization and mergers.
There are many reasons for such apparent duplication, including ideological and political differences (for example, INGO trade unions), methodological differences (for example, INGOs corresponding to different schools of psychology and psychoanalysis), geographical location (for example, when the INGOs are effectively regionally oriented and based), historical circumstances, personality differences, [etc]. However, this conditions is characteristic of all organizations at this time. (It is reputed that there are over 30 bodies within the UN family responsible for inter-Agency coordination). Thus, although duplication may be a criticism of organization in general, it is not specific to NGOs. In addition, research on research and innovation has shown that duplication is in fact beneficial in some instances.