An example of how unemployment is disguised is that in 1982, the UK instituted a change in the criteria by which it compiled its unemployment statistics, since counting as unemployed those who are both out of work, seeking employment [and] claiming benefit. By deterring, disallowing or liberalizing the access of benefit of various categories of the labour force in a variety of subsequent moves, the change has progressively caused more than a million people either to claim benefit while not defining themselves as looking for work ([eg] on invalid support or other types of benefit), or to withdraw from the labour force altogether. Thus they have ceased to be counted as unemployed and are treated as resting.
[Former socialist countries] The high employment figures in former socialist countries resulted from the fact that practically all blue and white collar workers were guaranteed employment by the state, usually in their current jobs. In fact, for managerial reasons, jobs do not fully utilize workers' skills and training, so that labour productivity is low.