Denial of right to justice for women
Prejudicial judicial treatment of women
Active prejudice towards women in court
In some Islam countries efforts to bring laws in conformity with a certain interpretation of the Quran and Sunnah has led to serious miscarriages of justice for women. For example, the onus of providing proof in a rape of a woman rests on the woman herself. If she is unable to convince the court, her allegation that she has been raped is in itself considered as a confession of having sex outside marriage and the rape victim effectively implicates herself and is liable to punishment. Furthermore, the woman can be categorized as the rapist herself since it is often assumed that she seduced the man.