Biotechnological innovations that create substitutes for cash crops like cocoa and coffee threaten to eliminate the livelihood of millions of Third World agricultural workers. Vanilla cultured in laboratories costs a fifth as much as vanilla extracted from beans, and thus jeopardizes the livelihood of tens of thousands of vanilla farmers in Madagascar. About 100,000 Kenyans make a living on small plots of land growing pyrethrum flowers, the source of a comparatively environmentally safe insecticide of which the USA has been the largest importer. The U.S. Department of Commerce, has awarded $1.2 million to a biotechnology firm to engineer pyrethrum genetically. Industrial countries will soon be able to synthesize all the pyrethrum they need and undersell Kenyan farmers.
As a result of EU and GATT trade liberalization measures, the UK's banana consumption has doubled in the period 1984-94. The average Briton now eats 10 kilograms of bananas a year, peaking 560,000 tonnes in 1993, all imported from developing and small island countries of The Windward Island, Jamaica, Belize, Suriname, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Ecuador, Cameroon and Ivory Coast. The effect on these countries of near doubling the production has been clearance of Caribbean forests with loss of biological diversity, soil erosion through cultivating steep hillsides, and increased dependence on toxic agrochemical inputs. The high ecological costs are now leading to economic hardship and social unrest. For example, Honduran banana worker were given compensation payments in 1993 for the use of the chemical DBCP on bananas; workers from Costa Rica claim it has made them sterile, in a case still pending in US courts. A Costa Rican university study claims that banana production along the Atlantic coast has caused deforestation, water pollution, the transformation of peasant farmers into agricultural labourer, the creation of all-male villages, prostitution, alcoholism, drug abuse and family disintegration. The effect of new tariff quotas imposed on banana imports by the EU in 1993 has only resulted in the laying off of thousands of workers, wage cuts and social hardship for small-scale farmers.