Deterioration in the cost of external national finance
Increases in interest rates on long-term debts to countries
Inappropriate loans available to countries
Unreliable forms of concessional and non-concessional lending to countries
Decreasing availability of concessional financial resources
This results in dramatic shifts in the debt structure from concessional loans to non-concessional loans with harder lending terms. Developing countries, in particular, are exposed to deteriorating terms of borrowing, including sudden increases in interest rates paid on long-term debts, particularly commercial loans. In addition grace and repayment periods may be reduced.
Besides trade, the cost and availability of international finance are the main external determinants of the economic performance of developing countries. The debt crisis has had a profound impact. Developing countries have traditionally been net importers of capital; their domestic savings are generally insufficient to meet their investment needs. The availability and cost of such external finance depend mainly on the overall size of the pool of exportable savings in capital-surplus countries and on the competing claims on that pool. During the 1980s both moved against the developing countries.
Every time the USA raises its interest rates thousands die in developing countries because money that would be used for health care and food is sent outside these countries to pay the debt.