Factors which impede the realization of the social, cultural and economic rights, and so the right to development, include: (a) structural adjustment, the deterioration in terms of trade, and the reduction in the purchasing power for the developing countries; (b) the debt burden; (c) misconceptions of the State in its relations with society ([eg] official corruption, lack of income distribution, lack of participation by affected parties in economic and political decision making); (d) relative capacity of the market economy to promote the realization of all human rights, which is made less effective by the decrease in the percentage of GDP spent on official development assistance; (e) economic growth regarded as a panacea; (f) erroneous perception of development; (g) insufficient political will; (h) devastation of the environment; (i) size of military expenditure and existence of armed conflicts; (j) existence of a dualistic view of human rights.
Equally denying were the failure by many States to observe internationally-recognized human rights standards and, in particular, the right of self-determination, the rule of law, the right to participation in fundamental economic, social and cultural rights, and the principle of non-discrimination. That situation had manifested itself in serious and systematic violations of human rights, increased ethnic conflicts, aggressive nationalism, acts of racism, racial and other discrimination, xenophobia, religious intolerance, hatred and violence, substantial population movements, the phenomenon of refugees and displaced persons, inadequate protection of vulnerable groups, and inadequate participation of women, minorities and indigenous peoples.
The right to development grew out of the economic inequiality and the disadvantaged position of the underdeveloped countries. This right establishes the principle of reparation to which are entitled the peoples and countries which had long been robbed of their wealth by slavery and colonization.
Contemporary development strategies have resulted in the creation of privileged national elites which follow the same patterns of consumption as hing-income groups in developed countries, while the great masses of the population cannot even meet their most basic needs. This follows a pattern practiced in developed countries for 50 years, where similar gaps exist. The actors and beneficiaries of these strategies constitute a minority, compared with the overwhelming but deprived minority.
2. Development has a true claim to be considered as a human right. Freedom of the press has little value for a population that is largely illiterate. Nations that formerly denied the connection are coming to accept the mutually reinforcing nature of civil, political and economic rights. Industrialized countries often overlook basic development needs and that human rights cannot flourish or receive respect in a society of desperately poor people. The quality of performance required for development cannot be attained unless the society believes in and defends human dignity. Respect for an individual's rights is the best way of arousing the person's energies and commitment. Only a society of democratically protected human rights can offer the stability that sustains development over time.