The restriction of access to information on current affairs may take the form of limited government or official information, propaganda, harassment of the press, government secrecy and official secrets, censorship and denial on commercial grounds either to news distributors or receivers. Such restrictions may be imposed by political authorities or by private organizations, or individuals who do not want to cooperate. The result tends to induce ignorance, alienation and apathy and may serve to maintain existing inequalities, injustices and exploitation; to strengthen the effectiveness of indoctrination, government control and dictatorship; and encourage subversive activities. Other ways in which the press can be limited include: legal pressures such as security laws, press laws, criminal codes of libel, and contempt laws; economic and political pressures such as bribes, control of newsprint, leverage of official advertising and control of bank loans; secrecy provisions; direct pressures such as the licensing of journalists, censorship, arrest and/or torture, bombings, forced mergers or closures, disappearances, or the killing of journalists.
In the USA, for example, newspapers and television, in an effort to boost profits, ar reporting less and less of overseas news. As a result Americans are less informed than ever about the global forces that increasingly shape their lives.