In most former colonial nations, managerial posts prior to independence were held by expatriates, so that the process of decision-making on critical issues was the prerogative of the foreigners who controlled business. For many cultures, this action-oriented style of the Western industrial revolution conflicted with images of good breeding and responsible living.
[Developing countries] In most developing countries there is a shortage of managerial skills. Typically such countries start with great handicaps: experienced administrators are scarce, and those who are available at the time when the development effort is launched have been trained with a narrow and restricted view of their functions; few have the background or experience needed to master the complex responsibilities which the development task imposes. In dealing with the international transfer of management skills, trainers have to face several peripheral problems, such as the mutual understanding between managers with different cultural backgrounds, education, behaviour, belief, or mother-tongue. Disregarding such problems often results in misunderstandings or in the ineffective application of management techniques and methods. A related problem is that until very recently, industry in developing countries was as a general rule represented by family enterprises. To develop a family enterprise into a manageable industrial set-up can be a major task, which it may take generations to complete.