As an alternative to adoption, there is a growing acceptance of the use artificial insemination as a response to infertility; and there have been advances in procedures for remedying various infertile conditions, thereby permitting more people to become parents biologically rather than through adoption. The successful implantation of an ovum fertilized in the laboratory promises a 'cure' for a large number of women who might otherwise have resorted to adoption. There has also been increasing acceptance of childlessness as an optional lifestyle, and there is growing public sanction and support for adults who voluntarily elect not to become parents; the decision not to become a parent no longer requires an apology nor does it occasion as much discomfort as it previously did. Concern regarding population growth and the ideology of women's liberation have contributed towards the growing acceptance of childlessness. As a consequence, more infertile couples may choose to adjust to their situation by accepting their childlessness rather than attempting to change their situation through adoption.