Misrepresentation of socially unacceptable activity as research
Misuse of research as a cover for illegal activity
Research as disinformation
Monitoring as a cover for inaction
The most striking example is the insistence by the governments of Japan and Iceland that continuation of whaling is essential for research purposes. More generally, space research is frequently used as a cover for missile development. A number of countries engage in research on nuclear physics which, despite denials over an extended period, subsequently becomes apparent as being the means through which they were able to develop nuclear weapons. It is reported that experimental uses of drugs on convicted criminals has been used as means for developing biochemical weapons.