Dramatic change in cultural orientations may be directly influenced by political, technological and economic revolution, and may serve to reinforce cultural barriers between two or more cultures. Governments may use indoctrination to guide people along nationalist or other politico-cultural lines. Advertising may serve a similar purpose in channelling popular culture for commercial purposes. Liberalization of attitudes towards morality, the environment and the spiritual and physical world may alter cultural orientations.
Cultural revolution has taken place as ideological revolution in communist countries. In 'Western' industrialized countries, liberalization of moral attitudes has also produced a 'permissive society' and counter cultures.