Much of the aid to Romania in the early 1990s, intended for orphans and institutionalized inmates of psychiatric homes, was allegedly diverted into the hands of corrupt officials and intermediaries who sold it at a profit on the blackmarket, notably in neighbouring countries. The web of corrupt officials was organized across the country and allowed only token amounts to reach the intended institution.
In October 1998 the Financial Times asserted that "half the $500 million which the World Bank gave the country [Russia] to restructure its coal industry has gone missing-even as coal miners sat outside the main government offices in protest against months without wages".
In 1998, beef and veal were supposedly exported to Jordan, a destination which would entitle the exporters to refunds. The real destination was Iraq, a country subject to trade embargo. The European Commission uncovered the fraud once it realized that the volume of shipments to Jordan bore no relation to local consumption.