2. The prevalent attitude that social benefits should be guaranteed regardless of individual participation further erodes ethical value screens by encouraging licence or withdrawal.
3. During the 1980s, there was a systematic transfer of the moral mandate, that for decades had been almost the sole preserve of the state, to commercial and private, non-profit organizations. This transfer happened in many shapes and guises, including the privatization of previously nationalized industries, the dismantling of legislation that had historically preserved labour rights, the relentless process of international trade liberalization and the retreat of many aspects of the welfare state. These patterns of change have all allowed greater freedom for commercial organizations to determine their own moral or social stances, most conspicuous in the form of advertising, and for the non-profits to take up the moral mantle in advocacy and service provision, most questionably in depicting social misery as a route to fundraising.
4. There are no parental role-models, no historical roots, no precedents and no intellectual grounding for understanding one's situation whether it is as a Yuppy or football hooligan. The absence of reliable values and expectations breeds insecurity, aggression, and finally violence. Severance from the old communal culture leaves a vacuum than can appear to be filled with a sub-culture built around the codes of one's contemporaries. But such reactive cults are inevitably defensive in their instability and amoral in their lack of adult direction.