Censorship in communist systems

Despite the claim of communism to be fully democratic and to be working with the wholehearted support of the people, communist governments still feel the need to suppress any political and ideological dissent from the standard party line. All media is subject to censorship; it may be confiscated and banned if it does not conform, and those responsible may be arrested. The gap left by the absence of free expression is filled with government propaganda and official information aimed at total indoctrination. Non-political matters such as scientific theory and art forms may also be censored or trimmed to conform with party policy, which may be unimaginative and anti-innovative. Effective censorship requires domestic intelligence surveillance, which may be aided by informants, and may give rise to underground and subversive measures. This situation encourages foreign influence and foreign propaganda (usually put out by radio broadcast) which may be inflammatory and cause international conflict. The current policy of "glasnost" in the former Soviet Union is an attempt to counter the most dangerous tendencies of decades of censorship, but the new policy itself illuminates the fact that the citizenry's responses, even to when and how they may dissent, are controlled by the party.
In 1983 in China, for example, one magazine was suppressed, and two key persons were purged from the 'People's daily' because that newspaper had suggested that the Chinese might be 'alienated' in their own society.
(D) Detailed problems