In 1993 it was alleged that many Muslim women in former Yugoslavia lived in fear of being called upon to testify at the United Nations war crimes tribunal in The Hague. These women had not admitted to being raped, even to their mothers, for if publicly exposed as rape victims, they risked being cast out by their own people. In their culture, as in some others, a woman who has been raped is considered to have brought shame upon her family. In this case the Muslim code of honour invites and perpetuates abuse. The men effectively become accomplices in attacks upon their loved ones because being victimized is confused with being shamed.
Whilst it is possible to blame victims unfairly, the desire to avoid victims blaming at all costs can be counterproductive insofar as it leads to a backward rather than a forward looking posture. Potential victims need to be encouraged to shift out of the condition that leads to victimization.