2. Anthropocentric bias, of course, is the big problem. This is that narrowing of focus that is particularly mischievous in setting the stage for ego- and ethno-centric self- aggrandizement and exploitative behaviours which despoil the earth and the future for all life. It is imperative that our thinking on the metaproblems be ecocentric rather than the usual anthropocentric.
2. To blame humans for thinking 'primarily about themselves' is counterproductive. Ecocentric emphasis should be encouraged - but anthropocentric purpose not denied. 3. "Fill the earth and subdue it". The Bible, from the first page on, teaches us that the whole of creation is for man, that it is his responsibility to develop it by intelligent effort and by means of his labour to perfect it, so to speak, for his use. If the world is made to furnish each individual with the means of livelihood and the instruments for his growth and progress, each man has therefore the right to find in the world what is necessary for himself. The recent (Vatican) Council reminded us of this: "God intended the earth and all that it contains for the use of every human being and people. Thus, as all men follow justice and unite in charity, created goods should abound for them on a reasonable basis". All other rights whatsoever, including those of property and of free commerce, are to be subordinated to this principle. They should not hinder but on the contrary favour its application. It is a grave and urgent social duty to redirect them to their primary finality. (Papal Encyclical, Populorum Progressio, 26 Mar 1967).