Air pollution from shipping

Air emissions from seagoing vessels
Whilst air pollutant emissions from land-based sources are gradually being brought into line with non-exceedance and health standards, the emissions from ships continue unabated.
No limits exist for the sulphur content of marine heavy fuel oils, the most widely used of ship fuels, with an average sulphur content of around 2.7%, or 27,000 parts per million (ppm) compared to 350 ppm for diesel used by road transport to be reduced to 10 ppm by 2009. By 2010, emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides from ships in European sea areas will reach levels equivalent to over 70-85% of EU land-based emissions.
Partly due to past exemptions, the cost of reducing emissions from ships is now considerably lower that many further abatement measures in land-based sectors.
(G) Very specific problems