Unnecessary diagnostic surgery
Invasive medical tests
Successful diagnosis of illness can often be achieved by more than one route. Non-invasive diagnostic tests are usually preferred to surgerical procedures by patients as they have fewer unpleasant side effects and cause less pain, while doctors and hospital management prefer them because they can be conducted quickly and the patient does not need to be hospitalized.
Biopsy of breast or axillar material is needed for diagnosing the extent of breast cancer. A new technique, sentinel node biopsy, is less aggressive than axillary dissection, the traditional surgical procedure.