Many countries, and notably Italy, are renowned for the system of political patronage and family ties through which individuals gain employment in the civil service. In Italy up until the 1990s political patronage in exchange for the promise of a vote had become one of the most common avenues to promotion and job-filling. The patronage has been extended by a well-established practice of allocating invalidity pensions prior to scheduled termination of employment.
2. Politicians use earmarked projects to buy votes. They themselves obtain such jobs through the same process once they leave office.