Visceral leishmaniasis is primarily transmitted through the bite of sandflies but is also transmitted by blood transfusions and sexual contact. The causative parasite invades the spleen, liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes and skin. After an incubation period of 2 to 6 months, symptoms appear with fever, dizziness, weakness and weight loss. If left untreated, this infection can become chronic and result in complications and infections such as pneumonia and can lead to death.
Visceral leishmaniasis is found in parts of China, the Indian subcontinent, the Mediterranean coastal plain, East Africa and South America.
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The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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