A fast-growing multimillion-dollar crime is selling and making illicit long-distance telephone calls. The fraud usually begins with a computer hacker who penetrates a telephone company's electronic files and extracts secret billing codes, the numbers used to determine who makes a call and who to bill for the call. The hackers then sell the code to middle men who distribute them to hustlers. The hustlers at bus, rail and air terminals seek out prospective customers at banks of pay telephones with offers of calls of unlimited duration at black-market rates. The victims are the long distance phone companies and their millions of customers who pay for the losses.
In the USA some $500 million is lost to illegal calls.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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