Questions have been raised relating to the safety of soft PVC toys and teething rings which are put into the mouth by small children. Reasons for concern for children's health have been raised because of the release of phthalates, a chemical substance used as a plasticiser in such PVC toys. Phthalates can damage the liver, kidneys and testicles when ingested. On 30 September 1999 eight Member States adopted measures prohibiting the use of phthalates in toys which small children put in their mouth. The European Commission adopted a Europe-wide withdrawal of such toys from the market in November 1999.