Smoking causes thickening and fragmentation of elastin, the elastic fibers that are long and smooth in healthy skin. Smoking also depletes the skin's oxygen supply by reducing circulation. It decreases the formation of collagen, the skin's main structural component, and may reduce the water content of the skin, all of which increase wrinkling. In women, smoking diminishes the level of circulating oestrogen, which in turn fosters dryness and disintegration of skin tissues.
Researchers investigated the diets of more than 400 participants aged 70 and older. They found that participants who ate plenty of healthy foods - including green leafy vegetables, nuts, olive oil, beans, and multigrain breads - were less likely to develop wrinkles than participants who maintained diets high in butter, red meat, and sugar. The researchers speculate that these finding may be due to increased amounts of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E in the healthier diets.