Sales of exported products on deferred-payment terms carry risks not found in the case of sales in domestic markets. Reliable information concerning prospective foreign buyers may be hard to obtain, making it difficult to accurately assess their credit-worthiness. Suppliers fear that in case of non-payment it may prove complicated or costly to press their claims in foreign courts, and that in the buyer's country alien creditors may not always receive the same treatment as do domestic creditors. In addition to commercial risks (insolvency and default of the buyer), external trade involves important non-commercial risks arising from events beyond the control of both buyer and supplier. Losses may be caused by political events such as war, rebellion and expropriation, by catastrophes such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes, and by monetary phenomena such as foreign exchange shortages and other transfer difficulties. When such events occur before delivery of the goods, they may prevent the buyer from fulfilling the contract or make it impossible to transport the goods to their destination. When they occur after delivery, they may render previously solvent, buyers insolvent or prevent payment by solvent buyers. Export credit insurance schemes alleviate some risks for nationals of some countries, but there are inequalities among the insurance plans and there are some countries for which no insurance is available.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.