Extrajudicial courts and tribunals
Other Names: Revolutionary courts
Nature: In some countries, special courts and tribunals are set up outside the normal judicial system of the country. Military courts may try civilians; special courts and tribunals are empowered to try 'political', 'security', or 'anti-revolutionary' offenders, and are usually not bound to follow the established procedures of the ordinary courts; safeguards for a fair trial are often ignored; legal representation may not be allowed; people may not be informed of the charges against them until their trials open; cross-examination of prosecution witnesses may not be allowed; evidence presented by the prosecution may not be contested; and judges are often not independent persons with legal backgrounds, but military personnel.
Problem Type: E: Emanations of other problems
Date of last update 01.01.2000 – 00:00 CET