In 1993 it was reported by the European Court of Auditors that a combination of weak management, poor financial controls and fraud in member states cost European taxpayers over £131 million in 1992. Damaging publicity has been given to the mismanagement associated with the lobbying for power of the top office holders in such UN specialized agencies as UNESCO, FAO and WHO. In the case of UNESCO this was one factor in the withdrawal of a number of countries, including the USA and the UK, from membership. The director-general was reportedly forced out in 1987 because of charges of rampant waste and mismanagement. The head of the office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees was forced to resigned in 1989, allegedly as a result of being accused of a £300,000 fraud, whilst his organization was faced with a £25 million debt. In 1993 the head of the Social Development Fund of the Council of Europe was obliged to rise following allegations of embezzlement and irregularities in management of the fund. He had paid himself his annual salary at the beginning of the year had had used funds set aside for his own pension. In 1993 the director-general of WHO was re-elected despite reports of serious financial irregularities, charges of incompetence and nepotism, and allegations of vote-buying. Some of the irregularities concerned dubious consulting contracts with executive board members.