Voting eligibility may be subject to property, income, age, sex, race, literacy, residence or nationality qualifications; vote by proxy may be inadmissible. Voting qualifications sharpen social conflict, alienation and apathy.
In Europe and the USA there are in some places, property requirements for voting in local elections. However, residence requirements are more widespread currently than property requirements, being 6 months in France and 6 months to 2 years in the USA. Most countries with a democratic voting tradition and a high literacy rate have some provision for voting by proxy. The most common minimum voting age is 21, but in certain countries it is 18; in the Netherlands it is 23. Women may not vote in certain Latin American and Muslim countries. Literacy tests remain in five Latin American countries, the Philippines and a third of the states in the USA. Negroes have been prevented from voting in South Africa, and also, until recently (although only semi-legally), in the southern USA.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.