Voting eligibility may be subject to property, income, age, sex, race, literacy, residence or nationality qualifications; vote by proxy may be inadmissible. Voting qualifications sharpen social conflict, alienation and apathy.
In Europe and the USA there are in some places, property requirements for voting in local elections. However, residence requirements are more widespread currently than property requirements, being 6 months in France and 6 months to 2 years in the USA. Most countries with a democratic voting tradition and a high literacy rate have some provision for voting by proxy. The most common minimum voting age is 21, but in certain countries it is 18; in the Netherlands it is 23. Women may not vote in certain Latin American and Muslim countries. Literacy tests remain in five Latin American countries, the Philippines and a third of the states in the USA. Negroes have been prevented from voting in South Africa, and also, until recently (although only semi-legally), in the southern USA.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.