International flight-paths of non-military aircraft can involve over-flights of sovereign land or sea territories and transit through or near foreign airspace. Aircraft may be harassed by local airforce, by buzzing or other threatening behaviour and communications, or by actually being fired upon. Foreign ground-controls may also threaten or withhold cooperation or assistance. Harassment may lead to an unjustified attack with casualties or fatalities. In some countries like the USA where there is considerable private aviation, small planes may be harassed by irresponsible private aviators, for entertainment, and private planes may be harassed by military aircraft if near bases or sensitive locations.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.