There are few internationally agreed rules for marine insurance. Each market uses either its own insurance policy terms and conditions or adopts or amends those of another leading market drawn up by insurers without formalized consultation with the assured. Inconsistent application of international insurance conventions is aggravated by delays in compliance. There has been a fairly consistent bias favouring shipowners in regard to loss and damage to goods. Broadly speaking, shipowners are able to claim exemptions from liability to compensate shippers for loss, damage or delay to goods without proving that they took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the loss. Also the monetary limitation of liability does not account for inflation. Treatment of cargo claims and settlements is unordered, flowing from a regime in whose formulation shippers and shipowners from all countries did not participate on an equal footing.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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