Some animals, especially calves, are kept on wooden slats in stalls where they cannot turn round and where they are tethered by the neck for life; with the result that the joints in the legs become deformed and often when the calf is taken to slaughter it cannot stand or walk. Most pigs after the weaning stage are fattened in houses where they have little more than room to lie down.
White veal calves are kept in very close confined conditions on a diet specially designed to make them anaemic and therefore produce the 'white meat' which is particularly popular throughout Europe. Although it has been recommended that an animal should at least have sufficient freedom of movement to be able, without difficulty, to turn round, groom itself, get up, lie down and stretch its limbs, in practice the animals are not given this amount of freedom and are kept as immobile as possible in order to put on more weight. The use of slats makes it difficult for animals to stand properly, and as their weight increases so is it badly distributed, causing malformations.