Paper deterioration Inadequate preservation of books
Books, periodicals, documents and reports are the main means of recording and storing knowledge. Contemporary mass-produced paper, although possessing many qualities, frequently lacks that of endurance. One of the main reasons of paper deterioration is the cross linking of molecular and supermolecular fibre structures (so called 'hornification'). This, together with the acidic degradation of cellulose chains, leads to the brittling of fibers and in consequence of paper . The main reasons are low purity of cellulose, use of alum to fix the sizing (which gives rise to acidity in the paper) and the increasing amount of acid fumes in the environment.
A survey of books published between 1900 and 1939 suggested that nearly 40% could not survive 25 years, even in moderate use, and most would be unusable in the 21st century. A later survey showed books published between 1940 and 1949 to be even shorter lived than newsprint. In the case of books of the 19th century, the deterioration can be indicated by the percentage categorized as needing restoration. Only 5% from the first fifty years are in this class, rising to 10 for the period 1850-1869, and to 48 for the last decade, due to use of new techniques.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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