Extra-economic constraints are a form of coercion to work based on relations of direct rule and submission, of personal dependence of the working masses on exploiters; such constraints are characteristic of slaveholding and feudal society.
Capitalism as a system of wage slavery is based on economic constraint. It presupposes the worker's personal liberty but at the same time deprives him in one way or another of the means of production. Therefore, in order not to die of hunger, the working people are forced to sell the capitalist their labour power and experience the oppression of exploitation.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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