Population policies and programmes in many of the Third World countries are failing because of lack of participation of the majority in their respective communities. This has rendered ineffective the information campaigns mounted on family planning and on the variety of contraceptives that are available to citizens. A revision of governmental population policies to include community participation as a vital component is therefore necessary, as is the involvement of local leaders in the implementation of programmes at the local level, since they are in a better position to allay fears concerning fertility. This raises a further concern that, while most community leaders assume positive attitudes, some are opposed on moral grounds; and also certain socio-economic factors serve as deterrents.
The decline in birth-rate in the USA started in 1957, four years before the pill became available.
Governments, educators, and the media, as well as individuals, must become motivated in addressing both problems of overpopulation and the mental and physical problems that need to be overcome before measures can be successfully implemented.
Among reasons against population control given in developing countries are that: an increased population is all that is needed to spark off rapid development; a complex web of traditional customs makes large families essential (a new baby is viewed as an asset to the entire community, a child is often named after both departed and living relatives, thus assuring that the relatives' presence will survive); extra hands are needed for work; family planning is a plot by Western governments to hamper Third World growth and development; people will be forced to have fewer children; there is great paternal pride in having numerous offspring; and a man's standing in the community is enhanced by the number of children of which he can boast.