Population policies and programmes in many of the Third World countries are failing because of lack of participation of the majority in their respective communities. This has rendered ineffective the information campaigns mounted on family planning and on the variety of contraceptives that are available to citizens. A revision of governmental population policies to include community participation as a vital component is therefore necessary, as is the involvement of local leaders in the implementation of programmes at the local level, since they are in a better position to allay fears concerning fertility. This raises a further concern that, while most community leaders assume positive attitudes, some are opposed on moral grounds; and also certain socio-economic factors serve as deterrents.
The decline in birth-rate in the USA started in 1957, four years before the pill became available.