Vanadium oxides, particularly vanadium pentoxide and its derivative, ammonium metavanadate, can produce severe toxic effects. Initial symptoms are profuse lacrimentation, nose or throat soreness, bronchitis, and chest pain. Severe reactions include fatal pneumonia, emphysema or chronic bronchitis. The tongue may turn green and cigarette ends of vanadium workers may show a greenish tinge.
Ferrovanadium is used in tool and high speed steel making. Vanadium pentoxide is an important catalyst. Their common usage assures some pollution and health hazards from this source.