INGOs do not have an information system to locate individuals, foundations and governmental programmes interested in making funds available in specific programmes areas; they depend on chance contact. Conversely, there is no information system that permits the INGOs to be located by such bodies. Similarly, INGOs do not have an information system to locate the most appropriate international and national bodies through which to make available funds for a specific programme; they also lack a system to overcome the difficulty whereby funds are voted every two or more years for programmes which may become irrelevant during that period in comparison with the need for new programmes adapted to newly detected problems in the INGOs' domain. Flexible fund allocation and distribution information techniques developed from the programme planning and budgeting system (PPBS) are frequently unavailable. INGOs also maintain an expensive exchange of correspondence before a potential member or supporter transfers funds for dues or in support of a particular programme. Automatic fund transfers from supporters to the INGO's account (and from there to programme accounts) is lacking.