Few USA or European companies have systematic policies for dealing with today's newly emerged norm of working parents with need for outside child-care. It is still common for women to curtail employment because of child bearing while men do not. Women thereby take less demanding, lower paying jobs, and it is often the case that the structures, habits, values and atmospheres of work become organized around the availability of those people without first-line responsibility for children.
Even though Sweden has liberal maternity and paternity leaves, 85% of all leaves are taken by women, which results in corporations viewing women workers as being out of the mainstream in terms of promotion and career advancement. France has a strong national system of public child care, which has enabled many women to work, but there is still strong occupational segregation and no legal means to pursue equal opportunity goals. Germany has generous national benefits but few private efforts to adapt work to family needs. In Russia in 1992, the Parliament and some city governments are dismantling the once elaborate Soviet system of child care. The Moscow City Council, for example, proposes to close about a third of the city's day-care centres within two years.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.