Retardation of psychomotor development in children
Childhood psychomotor retardation
Malnutrition and cultural deprivation in infancy and early childhood tend to lead to retardation of psychomotor development, impaired learning and behaviour. Cerebral development being of an irreversible character, deprivation in the course of its evolution, especially during the immediate post-natal period, has irreversible consequences. Undernourishment in the mother can make the new-born baby's nervous system more fragile, and may lead to serious damage later on. Premature weaning can compromise the process whereby the neurones acquire myelin. The critical period of the brain's physical growth being between the fifth and the tenth month following birth, malnutrition at this time may reduce the number of cells in the brain, which has virtually finished growing by the end of the second year. Studies in Central Africa and Central America show that malnutrition during the first four years of life lead to mediocre intellectual performance when children reach school age. If there are other deficiencies in the environment, (psychological conditions, family situation, irregular school attendance) the child runs greater risk of suffering from other handicaps at school. Educational deficiency, the wrong kind of education or lack of education, even among children living in comfortable material conditions, may have disastrous consequences for cerebral development.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.