Homosexuality is often rampant in jails and prisons where, for example, men work out their frustrations on new prisoners in gang-rape. Often the "gang rapers" do not see themselves as homosexuals but commit their crimes as a need to exert their virility which has no other opportunity for outlet. The men who are thus attacked (most often those of small build), having had their bodies defiled, their manhood degraded, and their will broken, are released into society ashamed, confused, and filled with hatred. They often leave prison with more aggressive psychological disorders than they had initially, thus becoming potential criminals of a more severe nature.
Especially in countries where homosexuality has been criminalized, such as Russia, prisoners convicted for homosexuality are often raped by other prisoners or beaten up when they resist. Prison authorities do nothing to protect gay prisoners and turn a blind eye to such abuse.
Many of the penal systems today where homosexuality and gang rape are prevalent, impose a more cruel and harsh punishment on a criminal than could ever be imposed by a court of justice.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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