Endometriosis is a wild overgrowth of the uterine lining, which may then detach itself from the uterus, invade the pelvic space and attach itself to other organs or body tissue. This misplaced uterine tissue spontaneously bleeds in response to hormonal changes, causing internal bleeding, scarring and often excruciating pain that can destroy the woman's ability to live and function normally. This disease is not uncommon among women, but it is incurable, at least by conventional medical standards. Non-surgical treatments suppress natural oestrogen production. Conservative surgery removes the excess tissue; radical surgery also removes the uterus.
An estimated 5 million women in the USA are affected by endometriosis. About 20% of hysterectomies are done on women with endometriosis.