Enclaves and exclaves


Enclaves and exclaves are discontiguous territories of states which are located within the territory of other states. In the case of islands they may exist within the territorial waters of another state. They are a particular form of disrupting influence on territorial integrity. As such they may be a source of military insecurity, and administrative and communication problems.


The number of enclaves has declined considerably since 1900. About 15 remain in Europe. Some remain in Africa and Asia, but most have been eliminated with the independence of the countries in those areas. New enclaves have been created as a result of armistice agreements (for example, West Berlin). Other well-known enclaves are Gibraltar and Hong Kong (to 1997).

Government Nation state
Related UN Sustainable Development Goals:
GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong InstitutionsGOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
Problem Type:
D: Detailed problems
Date of last update
04.10.2020 – 22:48 CEST