The unfair treatment of indigenous populations concerning working conditions, payment, and legal restrictions on the right to combine and strike implies their exploitation in employment.
The expropriation of the land of indigenous populations has reduced many to a state of dependency in which they are easily exploited by unscrupulous landowners and companies. When segregated and living on reservations low prices for produce are hard to combat. Legislation may exist (as in South Africa and other African countries) to deny the right to combine and strike in industry. Lack of education and general discrimination serve to keep other populations subjugated. Nomadism contributes to this, as does the seasonal nature of harvest time occupations for which excessively low wages are paid. The vicious circle is perpetuated by the need for children to work from an early age, thus denying them the benefits of education. Exploitation includes inadequate housing for workers and lack of welfare services in hazardous occupations.